week 4 forum post responses 5

In need of a 250 word response/discussion to each of the following forum posts. Agreement/disagreement/and/or continuing the discussion.

Original forum discussion/topic post is as follows:

For this week’s forums, select two terms related to research methodology that you found in your scholarly, peer-reviewed articles, and describe these terms to the class.

**Select terms that are General To All Research Methodology rather than terms specific to your topic or the studies you are reviewing. Use the terms found in the methodology, or how the participants were selected, how the data was collected, and how the data was analyzed etc.

Include the following bolded headings

General Research Term 1 and definition:

General Research Term 2 and definition:

Forum post response #1

Firstly, the first term related to research methodology that I came across was a bivariate analysis. I recall reading the term several months ago and coming across it again now while doing research. A bivariate analysis consists of two variables that are tested in order to determine the relationship between the two variables (Miles & Shevlin, 2001). Additionally, it measures whether a statistical association exists between the two variables and if one variable can be used to predict the other. The types of variables that are often asses include categorical variables and quantitative variables. For example, you can have a combination of variables that may include the following: two categorical variables, two quantitative variables or one categorical variable and one quantitative variable (Warner, 2012). Firstly, in the case that both variables are categorical variables the information is typically summarized within a contingency table. Also, a chi-square of association can be used in order to determine if the variables are significantly related (Warner, 2012). Secondly, if the variables are both quantitative variables to assess the relationship between the two variables Pearson r can be used. Additionally, Spearman r can be used to asses other forms of correlations if needed (Warner, 2012). Thirdly if there is one categorical variable and one quantitative variable the analysis conducted will include a comparison of the means, medians, sums or tanks of the X and Y variable (Warner, 2012). I have learned that there are different reasons for which researchers use a bivariate analysis over using a multivariate analysis.

Secondly, the second variable related to the research methodology was the abbreviation HSD. HSD stands for Honestly Significant Differences Test. I had never heard of this term until I came across an article that I want to include in my annotated bibliography. HSD is a post-hoc test that is often used after conducting an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the differences between the means (Salkind, 2010). The purpose of the HSD is to estimate the difference between the two means through statistical distribution. distribution provides the exact distribution of the of the differences (Salkind, 2010). I have learned that it is a post-hoc test that is commonly used after an ANOVA and it is not as uncommonly used as I had thought.

Forum post response #2

General Research Term 1 and definition: The first general research term that I found in my research is dyadic study. A dyadic study can best be described as the interaction between two things. The base word dyad means two things of a similar kind and the communication is the interaction between the two. At first reading this research, I knew that dyad had the meaning of two things, so I was sure that the study had something to do with comparing things. According to Diehl & Wright (2016), depending on the question and theory, dyadic approaches may be the most appropriate simplification of reality for scholars of international studies. This makes sense because if you have two similar people from different countries, that are being compared, they are able to use this approach to find the interaction between them both. In the study that I came across this topic, the two things that were being compared were the working agreement in counseling to see how multicultural counseling competence was measured between patients and their counselors. The results from each party were then compared to see if both sides were in agreement or if something could be fixed in the counseling sessions.

General Research Term 2 and definition: The second general research term that I found in my research was the grounded theory. The grounded theory can be known as the systematic generation of comparisons. This theory is an inductive method and researchers have based this theory on interplay. According to Thornberg (2013), the grounded theory, also known as GT, is a qualitative, interative, and inductive research approach that is designed to explore and analyze data to generate a theory on the studied phenomenon. This type of research can also be helpful for investigating individual, social psychological and other social processes and patterns in psychological research. In the study where I came across the grounded theory, it was a study done on adolescent girls who were dealing with an eating disorder. The pattern was steady for their behavior of being diagnosed with an eating disorder for over two years. The data was analyzed and investigated that there was a pattern in this behavior to be able to be diagnosed.

Forum post response #3

One terminology from several articles that I recognized but didn’t quite remember was is the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. I relied on my textbook from 501 Research Methods and Statistics to relearn what the Wilcoxon rank sum test is and when it’s used. It is a nonparametric test used to analyze ordinal data and compare medians of two independent groups (Jackson, 2012). Ordinal scales are used to categorize data by rank order, ranking things highest to lowest (Jackson, 2012). An example would be showing a group of test scores from highest score, to lowest score. Medians are used in statistics when the mean (average) score isn’t representative of the sample due to outliers (Jackson, 2012). Medians are the very middle score when scores are arranged in order (Jackson, 2012). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test is used when groups are independent of one another. If the groups are related, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks T test is used instead (Jackson, 2012).

A second terminology was multiple regression. Multiple regression is a way to analyze relationships between two or more independent variables with one dependent variable (Salkind, 2010). Multiple regression can be used to predict a value of a dependent variable based on a known relationship with certain independent variables (Salkind, 2010). An illustration of multiple regression would be a university admissions department using our GPA from this program along with our GRE scores to predict our success in a doctoral program. Test scores alone are not always indicative of performance and are therefore subject to error in prediction, but the combined variables of GPA and test scores are less likely to have a prediction error (Salkind, 2010). Multiple regression is used to predict a linear association between dependent variables and known predictive independent variables (Salkind, 2010). However, in social science multiple regression isn’t usually used to predict variables, as they are generally known (Salkind, 2010). Instead, it is used to explain to what if and to what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable (Salkind, 2010). Multiple regression allows researchers to test hypotheses about the relationships between multiple variables (Salkind, 2010). When linear relationships do not exist between variables, the non-linear regression should be used instead (Salkind, 2010).

I also had to refresh myself on the variety of qualitative methods because I gravitate to experimental designs. For anyone else struggling in this area, there are case studies, interviews, focus groups, field studies, action research, and archival studies (Jackson, 2012). When I located my first qualitative study to add to my paper, that was my first introduction to grounded theory analysis. I noticed Lauren wrote about it and I will likely engage with her post. I peeked at the posts that were up so far in order to not replicate any terms or methods in my own post. Unrelated to grounded theory or this post in general, the first qualitative study I decided to use does indeed help with my paper. It explored many of the things that I already know about my topic that led me to the focused subthemes. This will help the reader, and to be honest, it helps me communicate the knowledge I’ve accrued during the program with citations, rather than me just writing about what I sometimes (incorrectly) consider to be general knowledge at this point.

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